Types of Natural Vegetation in India and their Characteristics

How many of us have enjoyed geography back in school? I bet not many of us. Mugging up material is the prime reason to carry along. This article picks one of the common geography topics and mentions its characteristics with easy pointers. Scroll down to learn more! 

What is Natural Vegetation? 

As the name suggests, natural vegetation is a gift from mother earth. Several climatic factors such as rainfall, weather conditions, climate, terrain, and soil fertility, influencing all categories of natural vegetation will witness by themVegetation consists of cultivated crops and fruits, excluding wild vegetation

Types of Natural Vegetation in India and their Characteristics:

1. Tropical Evergreen Rainforests: 
Tropical Evergreen Rainforests are dense, multi-layered forests harbouring many types of plants and animals
Its traits include:
  • Found in precipitating areas receiving rainfall annually of greater than 200 cm.
  • Mostly found on slopes of the Western Ghats and north-eastern parts such as Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland, and the Andaman Islands.
  • As the name highlights, the leaves shine lustrously all-round the year.
  • Some examples include sandalwood, sisthu, rosewood, mahogany, etc. 
2. Deciduous or monsoon forests:
Also called dry forests, deciduous forests are found in tropical areas with long dry seasons, followed by heavy rainfall
Its traits include:
  • The rainfall ranges from 100-200 cm in such areas.
  • Surrounding areas include Assam, West Bengal, Orissa, Maharashtra, Karnataka, etc. 
  • During the extreme winter seasons, the trees bind to shed their leaves.
  • Some examples include teak, deodar, ebony, jackfruit, Palash, bamboo, etc.
3. Semi-Arid and Desert Natural Vegetation:
 Amidst deserts finds this type of vegetation with more rainfall and higher humidity.
Its traits include: 
  • Rainfall will generally find less than 50 cm.
  • Rajasthan, Gujarat, Karnataka, and Punjab are ideal locations for this type of vegetation.
  • Sand binding grasses, thorny shrubs, babul, etc., such areas are being attracted.
  • One of the unique species includes the Indian wild dates popularly known as “Khejur.”
  •  Extensive roots incorporate this kind of species and fleshy stems that have the feature to store water and save it until extreme drought conditions.
4. Tidal or Mangrove forests: 
Tidal or mangrove forests occur under the conditions of tides. Therefore, the vegetation is highly saline. 
Its traits include:
  • Also known as Littoral forests.
  • Put up in the outskirts of deltas and near the seashore such as Ganga, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri.
  • Densely relied on tidal water, these mangrove forests submerge into the deltaic plains at high tides.
  • Recalled as ‘Sundarbans’ in West Bengal, herein, “Sundri” is considered the most significant tree.
  • Some examples include Hogla, Gewa, Pasur, and also coconut palms.
5. Mountain forests:
These are forests on elevated lands above sea level. 
Its traits include:
  • Grow in slopes with fluctuation in altitude and temperature.
  • Up to 1500 meters, evergreen trees such as sal, teak, bamboo are grown precisely.
  • Between 1500-3500 meters, conifer trees such as oak, maple, deodar, cedar, etc., are produced
  • The snowfield includes junipers and Alpine meadows. 


Learning up geography with pointers and, most importantly, visuals make it exciting and easy. I hope this helps you and you develop a better taste in Natural Vegetation.  Thanks for reading!

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